Glossary

Glossary

A Size (papers)
The most common paper sizes used for general printing, stationery and publications (UK).

Adobe Illustrator
Illustrator is a vector-based drawing programme.

Adobe Photoshop
Usually just called Photoshop, is a graphics editing and image manipulation programme.

Artwork
Finished layout of typesetting, drawings and photographs, made up in a form, which is ready for the printer to commence production.

A/W
Abbreviation for artwork.

Author’s Corrections
Customer’s corrections or amendments normally made at the proofing stage.

B Size (papers)
Less common paper sizes mainly used for larger format jobs. E.G. display boards, posters, wall charts etc.

Back Up
To print on the reverse side of a printed sheet.

Bitmap
A grid of pixels or printed dots generated by computer to represent type and images. ‘Bitmapping’ is a term often used to describe the effect where edges of a picture take on a blocky/jagged shape due to errors in image processing or poor resolution.

Bleed
Printing where the colour continues off the edge of the paper.

Blind Embossing
Process of raising letters or designs on card.

Blocking
Process used to impress or stamp a design on a cover. The design can be blocked using colour inks, gold leaf or metal foil.

Board
Normally used to describe paper exceeding 170gsm.

C Sizes
Sizes used to describe envelopes, designed to take A size papers.

CMYK
Full colour printed images are made up of four component colours; Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black).

Coating
Special water based coating applied to printed matter to protect materials from ink smudging or finger marking or to enhance appearance. The main types are sealer, gloss, matt and silk. Coatings are commonly used on matt or silk-coated paper, as these are more prone to smudging than gloss coated paper. The main difference between a coating and a varnish is that coatings are faster drying and therefore jobs can be turned around more quickly.

Collating
Arranging of printed sheets into a desired sequence.

Colour Mark Up
Specifications on a piece of artwork to a printer, indicating the required colours for the item to be printed.

Colour Separation
The process by which an image is separated into the four component colours for print production.

Creep
When the middle pages of a folded section extend slightly beyond the outside pages.

Crop Marks
Printed lines on the edge of the paper sheet indicating where the paper should be cut to produce the correctly trimmed page size.

Die Cut
Leaflet or brochure cut out to a specified shape.

Digital Printing
Printing straight from electronic artwork (unlike litho printing no plates are used). Ideal for short runs.

Digital Proofing
Proofing direct from digital files instead of using film.

Desktop Publishing
The creation of artwork and print on your computer using a PC or MAC.

DL Envelope
A standard envelope size, measuring 110mm x 220mm, designed to take an A4 sheet, folded into three.

DPI
Dots per inch, used to indicate the resolution of images. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution and the better quality the image. 300dpi is the ideal resolution for print.

Duplex
Printing on both sides of a sheet of paper. Term applies to digital printing presses.

Duotone
An image printed using two colours rather than one.

Drilling
Drilling of holes in printed literature allowing insertion into a ring binder.

Dummy
A sample of a proposed job made up with the actual materials and cut to size.

Encapsulation
Plastic coating applied to any printed matter providing a rigid, watertight covering.

Embossing
The process of producing raised lettering or designs on card or paper.

EPS
Encapsulated Postscript File. This is a file format, which can be read across different programmes on MAC or PC computers.

Finishing
Any operation applied after printing (i.e. guillotining, folding, binding, laminating etc).

Font
A set of letters, numbers and symbols that share a common design style called a typeface.

Four Colour Process
Full colour printing using four component colours: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black).

Two-Up, Three-Up, Four-Up
Number of similar items printed on one sheet of paper.

GSM
Grammes per square metre is the measurement used to indicate weight of paper e.g. 80gsm.

Gloss Coating
A coating applied to give printed material a gloss finish, which also protects it from ink smudging and finger marks.

Gloss Varnish
A varnish applied to printed matter to give a gloss finish, which also protects against smudging and finger marks.

Gutter
The inside margins or blank space between 2 facing pages is called the gutter and is used to allow the binding in books and magazines.

Insert
Leaflet or other printed material inserted loose in a publication or mailing package.

JPEG
A commonly used format for image files.

Kiss Cut
A shaped cut out from double layered stock – used for peel off stickers.

Laminating
A thin plastic film used on printed material to provide protection. This can be a gloss or matt finish.

Litho (Lithographic) Printing
Also known as offset litho. A printing process by which the inked image to be printed is transferred (offset) first to a rubber blanket before coming into contact with the paper which takes up the inked areas.

Matt Coating
A coating applied to give printed material a matt finish and also protect against smudging and finger marking.

Matt Varnish
A varnish applied to printed material to give a matt finish and also protect against smudging and finger marking.

Machine Fold
The process of mechanically folding printed paper.

Machine Varnish
A general varnish applied to printed material to protect or seal against smudging or finger marking.

Origination
All the items required to produce a printed item. i.e. artwork, photography, illustration, typesetting etc.

Offset Litho
See Litho Printing

Overs
The extra quantity of printed items delivered to a customer in excess of the net amount ordered.

Pantone Reference (PMS)
International system of designating colours for printing reference.

PDF
Portable Document Format. A PDF is a file that combines, images, drawings, layouts and text into one file for easy delivery to or from the printer, particularly for proofing purposes.

Perfect Binding
Finishing process when pages of a book are glued together to give a square spine.

Perforation
A dotted score cut into paper to allow the paper to be torn off easily.

Personalisation
Process, which allows unique information to be individually included on printed items. Most commonly used on direct mail literature.

Process Colours
The four component colours, which make up full colour printing. Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black).

Proof
A sample of work supplied in either paper or pdf format to check for errors in text, positioning or quality of colour reproduction.

QuarkXPress
An industry standard computer application used for creating and editing complex page layouts.

Ream
500 sheets of paper.

Registration
Method of correlating overlapping colours on a single image. Out of register refers to when colours being used to print are out of line.

Resolution
Refers to the degree of detail of an image. Usually measured in dots per inch (dpi), a high resolution gives a high quality image and vice versa.

Reversed Out
Type made to appear white on a black or colour background.

RGB
3 colour split (Red, Green, Blue) used to display an array of colours on or from electronic equipment and typically used for web-based images. RGB images cannot be used in artwork for print. RGB images can be converted to CMYK in the RIP process (see below) but unhelpful results may occur.

RIP
Raster Image Processor. A processor used to convert files into a format ready for printing.

Saddle-Stitch
When the pages of a printed document (i.e. magazine) are bound together using metal staples.

Scanner
The equipment, which converts colour transparencies or hard copy colour artwork into images on a Mac or PC.

Scans
The name given to colour transparencies or colour artwork, which have been converted to images on a MAC or PC.

Self Cover
Used to describe when the paper used for the pages of a booklet is the same as that used for the cover.

Sheet Fed Press
Printing presses, which are fed by, separate sheets of paper. As opposed to paper on a roll. They are suitable for all types of commercial printing, particularly high quality work.

Show Through
The extent to which printing is visible through paper, most commonly occuring when lightweight paper is used.

Shrink Wrapping
Method of packing printed products by containing them in plastic film, then shrinking with heat.

Silk Coating
A coating applied to printed matter to give a silk finish and to protect against finger marking and ink smudging.

Silk Varnish
A varnish applied to printed material to give a silk finish and to protect against finger marking and smudging.

Solid Colour
An even colour, which is not tinted. Areas on a page with solid colours are known as solids.

Special Colour
A colour, which cannot be made up of the four component colours – CMYK. These colours are listed in a pantone colour swatch book. The need to use a special colour in addition to the standard 4 colour set is referred to as a five colour job. (CMYK + Special = 5 colours)

Spread
Two or more adjoining pages that would appear in view on a sheet.

Spot Colour
Any colour not generated out of the standard set of offset inks.

Spot Varnish
Varnish applied to a specific area of a document.

Stock
Paper or card to be printed on.

Tint
Percentage shade of a specific colour.

TIFF
Tagged Image File Format. A type of file, used to store an image.

Text
Words appearing on the page(s) of a document.

Typesetting
The assembly of text and pictures on a MAC or PC.

Typo
Short for ‘typographical error’ referring to a mistake in the copy.

UV Varnish
A special varnish, that has undergone an accelerated varnish drying process using ultra violet, used to enhance the appearance of printed material. A gloss UV Varnish is the most commonly used and gives a very shiny effect.

Varnishes
Special solution applied to printed matter to protect it from smudging and finger marking or to enhance the visual appearance. There are five main types – machine, gloss, matt and silk and UV. Varnishes are commonly used on matt or silk coated paper as these types are more prone to smudging than a gloss coated paper. Varnish applied to a specific area of a document is known as spot varnish.

Visual
A layout, indicating the general design, and position of the various elements.